» Runtime Environment

Some settings you specify in your job specification are passed to tasks when they start. Other settings are dynamically allocated when your job is scheduled. Both types of values are made available to your job through environment variables.

» Summary

Variable Description
NOMAD_ALLOC_DIR The path to the shared alloc/ directory. See here for more information.
NOMAD_TASK_DIR The path to the task local/ directory. See here for more information.
NOMAD_SECRETS_DIR Path to the task's secrets directory. See here for more information.
NOMAD_MEMORY_LIMIT Memory limit in MB for the task
NOMAD_CPU_LIMIT CPU limit in MHz for the task
NOMAD_ALLOC_ID Allocation ID of the task
NOMAD_ALLOC_NAME Allocation name of the task
NOMAD_ALLOC_INDEX Allocation index; useful to distinguish instances of task groups. From 0 to (count - 1).
NOMAD_TASK_NAME Task's name
NOMAD_GROUP_NAME Group's name
NOMAD_JOB_NAME Job's name
NOMAD_DC Datacenter in which the allocation is running
NOMAD_REGION Region in which the allocation is running
NOMAD_META_<key> The metadata value given by key on the task's metadata. Note that this is different from ${meta.<key>} which are keys in the node's metadata.
VAULT_TOKEN The task's Vault token. See Vault Integration for more details
Network-related Variables
NOMAD_IP_<label> Host IP for the given port label. See here for more information.
NOMAD_PORT_<label> Port for the given port label. Driver-specified port when a port map is used, otherwise the host's static or dynamic port allocation. Services should bind to this port. See here for more information.
NOMAD_ADDR_<label> Host IP:Port pair for the given port label.
NOMAD_HOST_PORT_<label> Port on the host for the port label. See here for more information.
NOMAD_IP_<task>_<label> Host IP for the given port label and task for tasks in the same task group.
NOMAD_PORT_<task>_<label> Port for the given port label and task for tasks in the same task group. Driver-specified port when a port map is used, otherwise the host's static or dynamic port allocation. Services should bind to this port.
NOMAD_ADDR_<task>_<label> Host IP:Port pair for the given port label and task for tasks in the same task group.
NOMAD_HOST_PORT_<task>_<label> Port on the host for the port label and task for tasks in the same task group.

» Task Identifiers

Nomad will pass both the allocation ID and name as well as the task, group and job's names. These are given as NOMAD_ALLOC_ID, NOMAD_ALLOC_NAME, NOMAD_ALLOC_INDEX, NOMAD_JOB_NAME, NOMAD_GROUP_NAME and NOMAD_TASK_NAME. The allocation ID and index can be useful when the task being run needs a unique identifier or to know its instance count.

» Resources

When you request resources for a job, Nomad creates a resource offer. The final resources for your job are not determined until it is scheduled. Nomad will tell you which resources have been allocated after evaluation and placement.

» CPU and Memory

Nomad will pass CPU and memory limits to your job as NOMAD_CPU_LIMIT and NOMAD_MEMORY_LIMIT. Your task should use these values to adapt its behavior to fit inside the resource allocation that nomad provides. For example, you can use the memory limit to inform how large your in-process cache should be, or to decide when to flush buffers to disk.

Both CPU and memory are presented as integers. The unit for CPU limit is 1024 = 1GHz. The unit for memory is 1 = 1 megabyte.

Writing your applications to adjust to these values at runtime provides greater scheduling flexibility since you can adjust the resource allocations in your job specification without needing to change your code. You can also schedule workloads that accept dynamic resource allocations so they can scale down/up as your cluster gets more or less busy.

» Networking

Nomad assigns IPs and ports to your jobs and exposes them via environment variables. See the Networking page for more details.

» Task Directories

Nomad makes the following directories available to tasks:

  • alloc/: This directory is shared across all tasks in a task group and can be used to store data that needs to be used by multiple tasks, such as a log shipper.
  • local/: This directory is private to each task. It can be used to store arbitrary data that should not be shared by tasks in the task group.
  • secrets/: This directory is private to each task, not accessible via the nomad alloc fs command or filesystem APIs and where possible backed by an in-memory filesystem. It can be used to store secret data that should not be visible outside the task.

These directories are persisted until the allocation is removed, which occurs hours after all the tasks in the task group enter terminal states. This gives time to view the data produced by tasks.

Depending on the driver and operating system being targeted, the directories are made available in various ways. For example, on docker the directories are bound to the container, while on exec on Linux the directories are mounted into the chroot. Regardless of how the directories are made available, the path to the directories can be read through the NOMAD_ALLOC_DIR, NOMAD_TASK_DIR, and NOMAD_SECRETS_DIR environment variables.

» Meta

The job specification also allows you to specify a meta block to supply arbitrary configuration to a task. This allows you to easily provide job-specific configuration even if you use the same executable unit in multiple jobs. These key-value pairs are passed through to the job as NOMAD_META_<key>=<value> environment variables. Prior to Nomad 0.5.5 the key was uppercased and since then both the original case and an uppercased version are injected. The uppercased version will be deprecated in a future release.

Currently there is no enforcement that the meta keys be lowercase, but using multiple keys with the same uppercased representation will lead to undefined behavior.